Sleep Disorders

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Disorders

Sleep Disorders

Sleep Disorders

The essential feature of Primary Insomnia is a complaint of difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep or of sleep that isn't restful, that lasts for at least 1 month and causes distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

Individuals with Insomnia most often report both difficulty falling asleep and intermittent wakefulness during sleep. Less commonly, these individuals may complain only of nonrestful sleep, feeling that their sleep was restless, light, or of poor quality. A preoccupation with sleep, and distress due to the inability to sleep, may create a vicious cycle: the more the individual tries to sleep, the more frustrated and distressed the individual becomes and the less he or she is able to sleep. Lying in a bed in which the individual has frequently spent sleepless nights may cause frustration and conditioned arousal. The individual may fall asleep more easily when not trying to do so (e.g., while watching television, reading, or riding in a car). Some individuals report that they sleep better away from their own bedrooms and their usual routines. Chronic insomnia may lead to decreased feelings of well-being during the day (e.g., deterioration of mood and motivation; decreased attention, energy, and concentration; and an increase in fatigue and malaise).

Sleep Disorder Related to Another Mental Disorder
Involves a prominent complaint of sleep disturbance that results from a diagnosable mental disorder (often a Mood Disorder or Anxiety Disorder) but that is sufficiently severe to warrant independent clinical attention. Presumably, the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the mental disorder also affect sleep-wake regulation.
Sleep Terrors
The essential feature of Sleep Terror Disorder is the repeated occurrence of sleep terrors, that is, abrupt, awakening usually accompanied by screaming, crying or jerking movements such as lunging forward. They are accompanied by intense fear. The individual generally does not recall much of the dream and is often difficult to console. They may experience tachycardia, rapid breathing, sweating and pupil dialation. To be a disorder, the individual must experience significant impairment in social, occupational or social functioning as a result of the symptoms.
Nightmare Disorder
The essential feature of Nightmare Disorder is repeated occurrences of frightening dreams that lead to awakenings from sleep. The nightmares usually occur in a lengthy, elaborate dream sequence that is highly anxiety provoking. They may occur after the individual experiences a traumatic life event. To be a disorder, the individual must experience significant impairment in social, occupational or social functioning as a result of the symptoms.
Sleep Walking Disorder
The essential feature of Sleepwalking Disorder is repeated episodes of rising from bed and walking about. It generally occurs during the first third of the sleeping period. The person may stare blankly, and may be unresponsive to communications from others. Upon awakening, the individual generally has little knowledge of the event. To be a disorder, the individual must experience significant impairment in social, occupational or social functioning as a result of the symptoms.
Narcolepsy
The essential features of Narcolepsy are repeated irresistible attacks of refreshing sleep. The "nap" or sleep attack, temporarily relieves the individuals desire for sleep but it generally returns within a few hours. The attacks must occur daily over a period of three months or more.
Insomnia
The essential features of Insomnia are difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep. Or, they may sleep without feeling rested afterwards, for at least a month. To be a disorder, the individual must experience significant impairment in social, occupational or social functioning as a result of the symptoms.
Hypersomnia
The essential feature of Hypersomnia is excessive sleepiness for at least 1 month. This may manifest in the individual experiencing prolonged sleep episodes, or they may have daytime sleep episodes almost daily. To be a disorder, the individual must experience significant impairment in social, occupational or social functioning as a result of the symptoms.
Sleep Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition
Involves a prominent complaint of sleep disturbance that results from the direct physiological effects of a general medical condition on the sleep-wake system.
Substance-Induced Sleep Disorder
Involves prominent complaints of sleep disturbance that result from the concurrent use, or recent discontinuation of use, of a substance (including medications).
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